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双语新闻-由于气候变化所导致的极端热浪,人类的身体已‘接近耐热极限’
发布时间:2019-07-30 作者:admin 点击:182

Human body ‘close to thermal limits’ due to extreme heatwaves caused by climate change, scientist says

由于气候变化所导致的极端热浪,人类的身体已‘接近耐热极限’

Extreme global temperatures are pushing the human body “close to thermal limits”, according to a climate scientist. 

根据气候科学家介绍,全球极端的气候条件已使人体“逼近耐热极限”。

Record-breaking heat has swept through Europe this week with temperatures topping 40C in a number of countries. 

本周,温度创新高的热浪席卷欧洲,数个国家的气温高达40摄氏度。

Record-breaking:空前的、破纪录的

However, in places such as South Asia and the Persian Gulf, people are already enduring temperatures reaching up to 54C. 

尽管如此,在南亚以及波斯湾等地方,人们已经在忍受高达54摄氏度的高温。

Despite all the body's thermal efficiencies, these areas could soon be uninhabitable, according to Loughborough University climate scientist Dr Tom Matthews in The Conversation. 

英国拉夫堡大学的气候科学家Tom Matthews博士在《对话》(The Conversation)中表示,尽管人体存在热效率,但这些地区可能马上会变得不宜居住。

Uninhabitable:不宜居住的;无法居住的

When air temperature exceeds 35C, the body relies on sweating to keep core temperatures at a safe level. However, when the “wet bulb” temperature – which reflects the ability of moisture to evaporate – reaches 35C, this system no longer works.

当气温超过35摄氏度时,人体会依靠排汗将体内温度保持在一个安全的范围内。但是,当“湿球”温度-一种反应湿度蒸发能力的温度达到35摄氏度时,这一系统将不再发挥作用。

core temperature:核心温度、内部温度

wet bulb temperature:湿球温度,“湿球温度”是相对于“干球温度”的概念,“干球温度”很好理解,就是空气中的真实温度,用一个普通的温度计就可以直接测出,我们每天听到天气预报中所说的气温就是指当日的“干球温度”。而“湿球温度”则是考虑了水的蒸发对温度的影响,也就是说用水的蒸发对“干球温度”进行降温,因为水的蒸发是一个吸热过程,通过水的蒸发能把空气降到的最低温度,就是“湿球温度”

“The wet bulb temperature includes the cooling effect of water evaporating from the thermometer, and so is normally much lower than the normal (“dry bulb”) temperature reported in weather forecasts,” Dr Matthews wrote.

Matthews博士写到:“湿球温度意味着水从温度计蒸发后的冷却效果,因此通常要比天气预报中所报道的正常(“干球”)温度低得多。”

“Once this wet bulb temperature threshold is crossed, the air is so full of water vapour that sweat no longer evaporates,” he said.

This means the human body cannot cool itself enough to survive more than a few hours.

“一旦湿球温度超过阈值,空气中将充满水蒸气,因此汗液将无法蒸发”,他表示。这意味着人体不能进行自我降温,这种情况持续数个小时就会危及生命。

“Without the means to dissipate heat, our core temperature rises, irrespective of how much water we drink, how much shade we seek, or how much rest we take,” he explained. 

博士解释道:“当没有消除热量的途径时,无论我们喝多少水,在树荫下呆多久或花多长时间休息,我们的体内温度还是会上升。”

Dissipate:消除、消散

Some areas – which are among the most densely populated on Earth – could pass this threshold by the end of the century, according to Dr Matthews.

根据Matthews博士的介绍,地球上某些人口最为稠密的地区,会在本世纪末超过这一阈值。

With climate change starting to profoundly alter weather systems, rising temperatures could soon make parts of the world uninhabitable. 

随着气候变化开始深刻改变天气系统,不断升高的温度可能很快就会使世界的部分地区不宜居住。

If electricity can be maintained, living in chronically heat-stressed conditions may be possible but a power outage could be catastrophic. 

如果能保留电力,那么在长期炎热的条件下居住可能可行,但是电力中断则可能会是灾难性的。

power outage:供电中断

In a recent paper published in Nature Climate Change, Dr Matthews and his team looked at the probability of a “grey swan” event in the case of extreme heat coinciding with massive blackouts. 

在一篇最近发表在《自然气候变化》中的文章中,Matthews博士和他的团队研究当大范围停电和极端酷热天气同时发生的“灰天鹅”事件的可能性。

Mega blackouts sometimes follow powerful tropical cyclones. Researchers found that dangerously hot temperatures during a period with no electricity could have catastrophic consequences.

大规模停电有时会在强有力的热带风暴后出现。研究人员发现,在某个断电时期出现危险高温可能会带来灾难性的后果。

“We looked at tropical cyclones, which have already caused the biggest blackouts on Earth, with the months-long power failure in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria among the most serious,” Dr Matthews wrote.

Matthews博士写到:“我们研究了热带气旋,它已经造成地球最大规模的停电,其中在最为严重的飓风Maria过后在波多黎各出现长达数月的断电当属最为严重之列。”

tropical cyclone:热带气旋

“We found that as the climate warms, it becomes ever more likely that these powerful cyclones would be followed by dangerous heat, and that such compound hazards would be expected every year if global warming reaches 4C. 

“我们发现,当气候变暖时,这些强有力的热带气旋则更有可能在危险的热浪后出现,而如果全球升温达到4摄氏度,这一双重危害可能每年都会出现。”

“During the emergency response to a tropical cyclone, keeping people cool would have to be as much a priority as providing clean drinking water.”

“在紧急应对热带气旋期间,让人们保持凉爽应该和为人们提供清洁饮用水一样成为当务之急。”

Heat-stressed countries are likely to see the largest absolute increases in humid-heat and they are often the least well-prepared to deal with the hazard. This could drive mass migration, which would make heat a worldwide issue – even for countries that are not experiencing scorching temperatures. 

高温国家很可能会遇到最严重的湿热绝对值增加,而这些国家应对这些危险也是最不充分的。这可能会导致大规模迁徙,并使高温成为世界性的难题-即使是对于那些并未经历高温的国家也是如此。

Dr Matthews wrote: “The challenges ahead are stark. Adaptation has its limits. We must therefore maintain our global perspective on heat and pursue a global response, slashing greenhouse gas emissions to keep to the Paris warming limits. 

Matthews博士写到:“未来的挑战真实且无法回避。适应也有其局限性。因此,我们必须对高温保持全球视角并采取全球性的应对,比如减少温室气体排放,遵守《巴黎协定》全球变暖上限。”

Adaptation:适应

Slash:大幅度削减、大大降低

“In this way, we have the greatest chance of averting deadly heat – home and abroad.”

“只有这样,我们才可以在最大程度在国内以及国外避免致命的高温。”


来源:独立报   编辑:Susan