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发布时间:2019-09-05 作者:admin 点击:110

Vegetarians might have higher risk of stroke than meat eaters, study says


上海译锐翻译  2019-9-5   13:20

(CNN)Non-meat diets have soared in popularity with many people ditching beef, pork and chicken in pursuit of health and environmental benefits and concerns about animal welfare.



However, a new study suggests that vegetarians and vegans may be at a higher risk of stroke than their meat-eating counterparts -- although those who don't eat meat have a lower chance of coronary heart disease, according to the new paper, published in the medical journal the BMJ on Wednesday.



coronary heart disease:冠心病

"It does seem that the lower risk of coronary heart diseases does exceed the higher risk of stroke, if we look at the absolute numbers," said lead researcher Tammy Tong, a nutritional epidemiologist at the Nuffield Department of Population Health at the University of Oxford.

领先研究者,Tammy Tong,牛津大学纳菲尔德人口健康系的营养流行病学家表示:“从绝对数量上来看,低风险的冠心病似乎确实超过了高风险的中风。”

This is the first study to look at the risk of stroke in vegetarians, said Tong. The research found that vegetarians and vegans had a 20% higher risk of stroke than meat-eaters, particularly hemorrhagic stroke -- caused when blood from an artery begins to bleed into the brain. This translates to 3 more cases of stroke per 1,000 people over 10 years.


hemorrhagic stroke:出血性中风

The exact reasons for this higher risk found in vegetarians are not clear, said Tong. It is possible that this is due to "very low cholesterol levels or very low levels of some nutrients," she said.



"There is some evidence which suggests that very low cholesterol levels might be associated with a slightly higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke," she said. Similarly, other research points to deficiencies of some nutrients, like vitamin B12, may be linked to a higher risk of stroke, said Tong.


Still, some researchers were skeptical of the stroke finding.


The research shows that people who cut out meat from their diet are significantly healthier than meat eaters, Dr. Malcolm Finlay, consultant cardiologist at Barts Heart Centre, Queen Mary University of London, told the Science Media Center.

Malcolm Finlay博士,伦敦大学玛丽皇后学院Barts心脏中心的心脏病专家顾问,告知科学媒介中心,“研究显示,将肉类从饮食中去掉的人们明显比食肉者更加健康”。

But he said the study put "too much weight on a complex statistical method to try and correct for the fact that the vegetarians were very much healthier than meat eaters."


"While this method can say the risk of stroke isn't as low as one might expect it to be in vegetarians considering how much healthier they are in general compared to meat-eaters, their overall risk of a major life-changing cardiovascular event happening still appears much lower," said Finlay, who was not involved in the study.

Finlay表示:“尽管这一方法可以说明,素食者主义者中风的风险并非像人们可能预想的那样低(考虑到素食主义者与食肉者相比总体要更加健康),但是他们患上导致生活发生重大改变的心血管疾病的总体风险似乎仍然要低得多。” Finlay本人并未参与该研究。

No significantly higher rate of stroke for pescetarians



Tong's research team followed more than 48,000 people in UK with an average age of 45, who were grouped into meat eaters (24,428), pescetarians (7,506), and vegetarians, including vegans (16,254). Participants were tracked on average for 18 years and during the study period there were were 2,820 cases of coronary heart disease and 1,072 cases of stroke.


The study calculations took into account influential factors, such as smoking or physical activity.


People following a pescetarian diet did not have a significantly higher rate of stroke, the study found.


This could be because fish-eaters' cholesterol levels are not as low as the vegetarians', explained Tong. They are also unlikely to be vitamin B12 deficient, "because you can get some B12 from fish and other animal products that they do eat," she said.


Whereas "vegetarians and vegans have very low consumption of animal products, the only way they can get B12 is from either supplements or fortified foods," she added.


Vegetarians have lower risk of heart disease


Vegetarians (including vegans) were found to have a 22% lower risk of coronary heart disease than meat eaters by the research team. This equates to 10 fewer cases of coronary heart disease among vegetarians than in meat-eaters per 1,000 people over 10 years.


Pescetarians had a 13% lower risk of coronary heart disease than meat-eaters, shows the study.


The researchers suggest that this finding could be due to vegans, vegetarians and pescatarians having a lower BMI and lower rates of high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes.


Heart disease is more common than hemorrhagic stroke, meaning vegetarians had better overall cardiovascular health outcomes despite a higher stroke risk, Stephen Burgess, group leader at the MRC Biostatistics Unit at the University of Cambridge, told the Science Media Center.

心脏病要比出血性中风更常见,尽管素食者中风的风险更高,但这意味着素食者的心血管总体更健康,Stephen Burgess,剑桥大学MRC生物统计学部小组负责人向科学媒介中心介绍道。

"While the differences observed were small in magnitude, this study suggests that taking up a vegetarian diet may not be universally beneficial for all health outcomes," said Burgess, who was not involved in the study.


"When considering cardiovascular health, switching to a vegetarian diet should not be seen as an end in itself, but should be considered alongside additional dietary and lifestyle changes."


More research needed


In an editorial that also published in BMJ, professors Mark Lawrence and Sarah McNaughton from Deakin University in Australia wrote that the results may not apply to all vegetarians globally.

在一篇也发表在《英国医学周刊》中的社论中,澳大利亚迪肯大学的Mark Lawrence和Sarah McNaughton教授写道,研究可能并非适用于全球所有的食素者。

"Participants were all from the United Kingdom where dietary patterns and other lifestyle behaviors are likely to differ from those prevalent in low and middle income countries, where most of the world's vegetarians live," wrote Lawrence and McNaughton, who were not involved in the study.


Tracy Parker, senior dietitian at the British Heart Foundation, said the study provided further evidence that plant-based foods can lower risk the of heart disease.

Tracy Parker,英国心脏基金会高级营养学家表示,研究通过更多的证据进一步证明植物性食物能够减少患心脏病的风险。

"However, it also found that vegetarians, including vegans, are at a higher risk of stroke than meat eaters - potentially due to lack of certain nutrients," she said in an email. She also was not involved in the research.


"Whilst this is an interesting finding, this study is observational and doesn't provide us with enough evidence, so more research in this area would be needed."


The study authors also noted that further research was needed and said that the findings were based on a largely white European population.


"Additional studies in other large scale cohorts with a high proportion of non-meat eaters are needed to confirm the generalizability of these results and assess their relevance for clinical practice and public health," Tong said.


文章来源:CNN   编辑:Susan