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双语新闻-研究表明,素食者可能比食肉者更容易中风
发布时间:2019-09-05 作者:admin 点击:110

Vegetarians might have higher risk of stroke than meat eaters, study says

研究表明,素食者可能比食肉者更容易中风

上海译锐翻译  2019-9-5   13:20

(CNN)Non-meat diets have soared in popularity with many people ditching beef, pork and chicken in pursuit of health and environmental benefits and concerns about animal welfare.

随着许多人为了健康、环境以及动物的幸福而放弃牛肉、猪肉和鸡肉,非肉饮食一下子备受追捧。

ditch:摆脱;抛弃;丢弃

However, a new study suggests that vegetarians and vegans may be at a higher risk of stroke than their meat-eating counterparts -- although those who don't eat meat have a lower chance of coronary heart disease, according to the new paper, published in the medical journal the BMJ on Wednesday.

然而,周三在医疗期刊《英国医学杂志》发表的一篇新论文中的一项新研究表明,尽管不吃肉的人群患冠心病的几率更低,但是素食者以及严格吃素者与吃肉者相比,可能更容易患上中风。

vegan:严格素食者

coronary heart disease:冠心病

"It does seem that the lower risk of coronary heart diseases does exceed the higher risk of stroke, if we look at the absolute numbers," said lead researcher Tammy Tong, a nutritional epidemiologist at the Nuffield Department of Population Health at the University of Oxford.

领先研究者,Tammy Tong,牛津大学纳菲尔德人口健康系的营养流行病学家表示:“从绝对数量上来看,低风险的冠心病似乎确实超过了高风险的中风。”

This is the first study to look at the risk of stroke in vegetarians, said Tong. The research found that vegetarians and vegans had a 20% higher risk of stroke than meat-eaters, particularly hemorrhagic stroke -- caused when blood from an artery begins to bleed into the brain. This translates to 3 more cases of stroke per 1,000 people over 10 years.

这是首次了解素食主义者中风风险的研究,Tong说。研究发现,素食者和严格素食者中风的风险,特别是出血性中风的风险,要比食肉者高出20%。出血性中风是由动脉中的血开始流入脑部所引起。在10年多的时间里,每1000人中,就会有超过3例中风患者。

hemorrhagic stroke:出血性中风

The exact reasons for this higher risk found in vegetarians are not clear, said Tong. It is possible that this is due to "very low cholesterol levels or very low levels of some nutrients," she said.

素食者主义者更容易中风的原因还不明确,Tong说。可能是由于“胆固醇水平太低或某些营养物质过少”而引起的。

cholesterol:胆固醇

"There is some evidence which suggests that very low cholesterol levels might be associated with a slightly higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke," she said. Similarly, other research points to deficiencies of some nutrients, like vitamin B12, may be linked to a higher risk of stroke, said Tong.

她表示:“部分证据表明,极低的胆固醇含量可能与出血性中风风险稍微增高有关。同样,其他研究发现某些营养物质的缺乏,比如维生素B12,可能也与中风风险增加有关。”

Still, some researchers were skeptical of the stroke finding.

仍然有部分学者对中风研究结果持怀疑态度。

The research shows that people who cut out meat from their diet are significantly healthier than meat eaters, Dr. Malcolm Finlay, consultant cardiologist at Barts Heart Centre, Queen Mary University of London, told the Science Media Center.

Malcolm Finlay博士,伦敦大学玛丽皇后学院Barts心脏中心的心脏病专家顾问,告知科学媒介中心,“研究显示,将肉类从饮食中去掉的人们明显比食肉者更加健康”。

But he said the study put "too much weight on a complex statistical method to try and correct for the fact that the vegetarians were very much healthier than meat eaters."

但是,他认为,研究把太多重心放在复杂的统计方式上面以尝试扭转素食主义者要比肉食者主义者健康得多的事实。

"While this method can say the risk of stroke isn't as low as one might expect it to be in vegetarians considering how much healthier they are in general compared to meat-eaters, their overall risk of a major life-changing cardiovascular event happening still appears much lower," said Finlay, who was not involved in the study.

Finlay表示:“尽管这一方法可以说明,素食者主义者中风的风险并非像人们可能预想的那样低(考虑到素食主义者与食肉者相比总体要更加健康),但是他们患上导致生活发生重大改变的心血管疾病的总体风险似乎仍然要低得多。” Finlay本人并未参与该研究。

No significantly higher rate of stroke for pescetarians

食鱼者患中风的概率没有明显增加

pescetarian:食鱼者

Tong's research team followed more than 48,000 people in UK with an average age of 45, who were grouped into meat eaters (24,428), pescetarians (7,506), and vegetarians, including vegans (16,254). Participants were tracked on average for 18 years and during the study period there were were 2,820 cases of coronary heart disease and 1,072 cases of stroke.

Tong的研究团队对英国平均年龄在45岁的、超过4.8万名被研究者进行跟踪研究。被研究者被分为食肉者(24,428)、食鱼者(7,506)和素食者,包括严格素食主义者。跟踪调查研究的平均时间为18年。在研究期间,出现2820例冠心病和1072例中风。

The study calculations took into account influential factors, such as smoking or physical activity.

研究在计算时还考虑了吸烟或体育活动等具有影响力的因素。

People following a pescetarian diet did not have a significantly higher rate of stroke, the study found.

研究发现,只吃鱼的人群患中风的风险并未明显增加。

This could be because fish-eaters' cholesterol levels are not as low as the vegetarians', explained Tong. They are also unlikely to be vitamin B12 deficient, "because you can get some B12 from fish and other animal products that they do eat," she said.

Tong的解释是,这可能是因为吃鱼的人的胆固醇水平并不像素食者那么低。他们同样不太可能缺乏维生素B12,“因为你可以从鱼和其他动物食品中获得一些B12”。

Whereas "vegetarians and vegans have very low consumption of animal products, the only way they can get B12 is from either supplements or fortified foods," she added.

但是,“素食者和严格素食者所摄入的动物类产品非常低,那么他们获取B12的唯一途径就是补充剂物或强化食品。”

Vegetarians have lower risk of heart disease

素食者患心脏病的风险更低

Vegetarians (including vegans) were found to have a 22% lower risk of coronary heart disease than meat eaters by the research team. This equates to 10 fewer cases of coronary heart disease among vegetarians than in meat-eaters per 1,000 people over 10 years.

研究团队发现,素食者(包括严格素食者)患冠心病的概率要比食肉者低22%。这相当于,在超过10年的时间里,在每一千人当中,素食者中患冠心病的患者要比食肉者少10个。

Pescetarians had a 13% lower risk of coronary heart disease than meat-eaters, shows the study.

研究表明,食鱼者患冠心病的风险要比食肉者低13%。

The researchers suggest that this finding could be due to vegans, vegetarians and pescatarians having a lower BMI and lower rates of high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and diabetes.

研究人员认为,这一研究结果可能是由于严格素食者、素食者以及食鱼者的BMI更低、患高血压、高血胆固醇和糖尿病的概率也更低。

Heart disease is more common than hemorrhagic stroke, meaning vegetarians had better overall cardiovascular health outcomes despite a higher stroke risk, Stephen Burgess, group leader at the MRC Biostatistics Unit at the University of Cambridge, told the Science Media Center.

心脏病要比出血性中风更常见,尽管素食者中风的风险更高,但这意味着素食者的心血管总体更健康,Stephen Burgess,剑桥大学MRC生物统计学部小组负责人向科学媒介中心介绍道。

"While the differences observed were small in magnitude, this study suggests that taking up a vegetarian diet may not be universally beneficial for all health outcomes," said Burgess, who was not involved in the study.

Burgess表示:“尽管所观察到的差别在量值上并不明显,但这一研究表明,食素饮食并非对所有健康都有好处。”Burgess并未参与本次研究。

"When considering cardiovascular health, switching to a vegetarian diet should not be seen as an end in itself, but should be considered alongside additional dietary and lifestyle changes."

“当涉及到心血管健康,不应将开始食素本身作为目的,而应该将其作为附加的饮食和生活方式转变。”

More research needed

需要更进一步研究

In an editorial that also published in BMJ, professors Mark Lawrence and Sarah McNaughton from Deakin University in Australia wrote that the results may not apply to all vegetarians globally.

在一篇也发表在《英国医学周刊》中的社论中,澳大利亚迪肯大学的Mark Lawrence和Sarah McNaughton教授写道,研究可能并非适用于全球所有的食素者。

"Participants were all from the United Kingdom where dietary patterns and other lifestyle behaviors are likely to differ from those prevalent in low and middle income countries, where most of the world's vegetarians live," wrote Lawrence and McNaughton, who were not involved in the study.

Lawrence和McNaughton在社论中写道,“参与者全部来自于英国,其饮食习惯和其他生活方式也很可能与中低收入国家中占全球绝大多数的食素者所不同”。Lawrence和McNaughton并未参与本次研究。

Tracy Parker, senior dietitian at the British Heart Foundation, said the study provided further evidence that plant-based foods can lower risk the of heart disease.

Tracy Parker,英国心脏基金会高级营养学家表示,研究通过更多的证据进一步证明植物性食物能够减少患心脏病的风险。

"However, it also found that vegetarians, including vegans, are at a higher risk of stroke than meat eaters - potentially due to lack of certain nutrients," she said in an email. She also was not involved in the research.

“但是,研究也发现,素食者,包括严格的素食者患中风的风险要比食肉者高,这可能是由于缺乏某些营养物质所导致”,她在电子邮件中如此写道。Tracy也未参与该研究。

"Whilst this is an interesting finding, this study is observational and doesn't provide us with enough evidence, so more research in this area would be needed."

“尽管这是一项有趣的研究发现,但是研究仅观察到具体情况,并未提供充分的证据。因此该领域还需要更加深入的研究。”

The study authors also noted that further research was needed and said that the findings were based on a largely white European population.

研究作者也注意到,还需要进一步研究并表示,研究结果来自于欧洲白人。

"Additional studies in other large scale cohorts with a high proportion of non-meat eaters are needed to confirm the generalizability of these results and assess their relevance for clinical practice and public health," Tong said.

“我们需要在其他素食者占比更多的地区展开更多研究,以证实这些结果的普遍性并对其与临床实践和公众健康的相关性进行评估”,Tong表示。



文章来源:CNN   编辑:Susan