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发布时间:2020-05-12 作者:admin 点击:154

Bat 'super immunity' may explain how bats carry coronaviruses, study finds


上海译锐翻译  2020-5-12   13:29 p.m.

A University of Saskatchewan (USask) research team has uncovered how bats can carry the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus without getting sick -- research that could shed light on how coronaviruses make the jump to humans and other animals.


Coronaviruses such as MERS, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and more recently the COVID19-causing SARS-CoV-2 virus, are thought to have originated in bats. While these viruses can cause serious and often fatal disease in people, for reasons not previously well understood, bats seem unharmed.

诸如中东呼吸综合症、严重急性呼吸道综合症以及最近引起SARS CoV2 病毒的COVID19等冠状病毒被认为来自于蝙蝠。这些病毒能够在人体中引起严重并往往是致命的疾病,但是由于一些此前未知的原因,蝙蝠在这些病毒面前似乎毫发无损。

"The bats don't get rid of the virus and yet don't get sick. We wanted to understand why the MERS virus doesn't shut down the bat immune responses as it does in humans," said USask microbiologist Vikram Misra.

“蝙蝠并没有消除这些病毒,但是同时也没有生病。我们希望弄清楚为什么MERS病毒不会像关闭人类的免疫应答一样关闭蝙蝠的免疫应答”,萨斯喀彻温大学的微生物学家Vikram Misra表示。

immune response:免疫应答(机体对抗原的应答)

In research just published in Scientific Reports, the team has demonstrated for the first time that cells from an insect-eating brown bat can be persistently infected with MERS coronavirus for months, due to important adaptations from both the bat and the virus working together.

"Instead of killing bat cells as the virus does with human cells, the MERS coronavirus enters a long-term relationship with the host, maintained by the bat's unique 'super' immune system," said Misra, corresponding author on the paper. "SARS-CoV-2 is thought to operate in the same way."

在刚刚发表于《科学报告》的研究中,研究团队首次展示了由于蝙蝠和病毒共同作用并发生了一些重要的转变,以昆虫为食的棕色蝙蝠体内的细胞可以在数月内持续受到MERS冠状病毒的感染。“病毒并没有像杀死人类体内的细胞那样消灭蝙蝠体内的细胞,MERS冠状病毒与宿主达成了一项长期的关系,这种关系由蝙蝠独特的‘超级’免疫系统所维持”,论文的通信作者Misra表示。“SARS CoV2被认为以同样的方式发挥作用。”


Misra says the team's work suggests that stresses on bats -- such as wet markets, other diseases, and possibly habitat loss -- may have a role in coronavirus spilling over to other species.


"When a bat experiences stress to their immune system, it disrupts this immune system-virus balance and allows the virus to multiply," he said.


The research was carried out at USask's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization -- International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), one of the world's largest containment level 3 research facilities, by a team of researchers from USask's Western College of Veterinary Medicine and VIDO-InterVac.

研究在萨斯喀彻温大学疫苗和感染疾病组织国际疫苗中心展开。该中心是全球最大的3级防护研究机构之一。研究由萨斯喀彻温大学西方兽医学院和VIDO InterVac的研究团队展开。

"We see that the MERS coronavirus can very quickly adapt itself to a particular niche, and although we do not completely understand what is going on, this demonstrates how coronaviruses are able to jump from species to species so effortlessly," said VIDO-InterVac scientist Darryl Falzarano, who co-led the bat study, developed the first potential treatment for MERS-CoV, and is leading VIDO-InterVac's efforts to develop a vaccine against COVID-19.

“我们看到MERS冠状病毒能够非常迅速地适应特定的环境。虽然我们还没有彻底明白这其中到底发生了什么,但是我们可以看到冠状病毒是如何能够毫不费力地从某些物种扩散到另一些物种”,VIDO InterVac科学家Darryl Falzarano表示。Darryl Falzarano是蝙蝠研究项目的带头人之一,其推出首个针对MERS CoVD的潜在治疗方案并带领VIDO InterVac研究团队共同研发COVID19的疫苗。

So far, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 3.5 million people worldwide and killed seven per cent of those infected. In contrast, the MERS virus infected nearly 2,500 people in 2012 but killed one in every three people infected. There is no vaccine for either SARS-CoV-2 or MERS. While camels are the known intermediate hosts of MERS-CoV, bats are suspected to be the ancestral host.

迄今为止,SARS CoV2病毒已经感染了全球超过3500万人次并且感染人群中的死亡率为7%。相比之下,MERS病毒在2012年所感染的人数接近2500人次,并且每三例感染中就有一例死亡。无论是SARS CoV2,还是MERS,都没有对应的疫苗。骆驼是MERS CoV已知的中间宿主,而蝙蝠则是疑似初宿主。

intermediate host:中间宿主

ancestral host:初宿主

Coronaviruses rapidly adapt to the species they infect, Misra said, but little is known on the molecular interactions of these viruses with their natural bat hosts. A 2017 USask-led study showed that bat coronaviruses can persist in their natural bat host for at least four months of hibernation.



When exposed to the MERS virus, bat cells adapt -- not by producing inflammation-causing proteins that are hallmarks of getting sick, but rather by maintaining a natural antiviral response, a function which shuts down in other species, including humans. Simultaneously, the MERS virus also adapts to the bat host cells by very rapidly mutating one specific gene, he said.


Operating together, these adaptations result in the virus remaining long-term in the bat but being rendered harmless until something -- such as disease or other stressors -- upsets this delicate equilibrium.


Next, the team will turn its focus to understanding how the bat-borne MERS virus adapts to infection and replication in camelid (a group of even-toed ungulates that includes camels) and human cells.


"This information may be critical for predicting the next bat virus that will cause a pandemic," said Misra.


文章来源:科学日报   翻译及编辑:上海译锐翻译质控部