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双语新闻-Covid-19的十大典型症状
发布时间:2020-07-15 作者:admin 点击:51

10 typical symptoms

COVID-19十大典型症状

上海译锐翻译     2020-7-15     13:28

Some of the more well-known and commons signs of Covid-19 can be just as dangerous.

Covid-19某些更加为人们所熟悉的以及常见的症状同样具有危险性。

An inability to take a deep breath: Shortness of breath is not usually an early symptom of Covid-19, but it is the most serious. It can occur on its own, without a cough. If your chest becomes tight or you begin to feel as if you cannot breathe deeply enough to fill your lungs with air, that's a sign to immediately call your doctor or a local urgent care, experts say.

无法深呼吸:呼吸短促通常并非是Covid-19的早期症状,但它确是最严重的症状。该症状可以不伴随咳嗽而单独存在。如果你感觉胸部变紧或开始感觉无法深呼吸时,请立刻联系医生或当地紧急医疗救援。

"If the shortness of breath is severe enough, you should call 911," said American Medical Association president Dr. Patrice Harris.

“如果呼吸短促非常严重,那么你应该拨打911”,美国医学协会主席Patrice Harris表示。

Get medical attention immediately, the CDC says, if you experience a "persistent pain or pressure in the chest," or have "bluish lips or face," a possible sign of a lack of oxygen.

CDC表示,如果你感觉“胸部持续疼痛或感到压迫”或“嘴唇或脸部发紫”,应立刻就医,因为这些症状很可能是缺氧的表现。

A rising temperature: Fever is a key sign of Covid-19. But don't fixate on a number on the thermometer. Many people have a core body temperature that is above or below the typical 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius).

体温升高:高烧是Covid-19一个重要症状。但是,不要盯着温度计上的温度,因为许多人的核心体温会高于或低于常规的98.6华氏度(37摄氏度)。

Most children and adults, however, will not be considered feverish until their temperature reaches 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37.7 degrees Celsius).

然而,对于绝大多数儿童和成人而言,只有当体温达到100华氏度(37.7摄氏度)时,才被认为是发烧。

"There are many misconceptions about fever," said Dr. John Williams, chief of the division of pediatric infectious diseases at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh.

匹兹堡大学匹兹堡儿童医院医疗中心儿科传染病科主任John Williams博士表示:“关于发烧,人们有许多误解。”

"We all actually go up and down quite a bit during the day as much as half of a degree or a degree," Williams said, adding that for most people "99.0 degrees or 99.5 degrees Fahrenheit is not a fever."

“实际上,在一天当中,我们所有人的体温都会略微上升和下降,体温的变化幅度最多可达0.5或1度。对于绝大多数人而言,体温在99.0度或99.5华氏度并非意味着发烧。”

Don't rely on a temperature taken in the morning, Schaffner advised, because temperature varies during the day. Instead, take your temperature in the late afternoon and early evening.

Shaffner建议说:“在早晨所测量的温度不准,因为温度会在一天当中波动。相反,应该在黄昏或傍晚时测量温度。”

"One of the most common presentations of fever is that your temperature goes up in the late afternoon and early evening. It's a common way that viruses produce fever."

“发烧最常见的表现之一就是温度会在黄昏和傍晚上升,这是病毒导致高烧的常见方式。”

A debilitating cough: Coughing is another common symptom, but it's not just any cough, Schaffner said. The cough is bothersome, one that you feel deep in your chest.

弱咳:咳嗽是另一个常见症状,但是它不是普通的咳嗽,Schaffner表示。这种咳嗽很烦人,你感觉咳嗽来自于胸腔内部。

"It's not a tickle in your throat. You're not just clearing your throat. It's not just irritated," Schaffner explained. "It's coming from your breastbone or sternum, and you can tell that your bronchial tubes are inflamed or irritated."

“这种咳嗽不是嗓子痒。你不会只是清嗓子,也不只是发炎,”Schaffner解释道。这种咳嗽来自于你的胸骨或胸板,你能够判断出你的支气管发炎或受到刺激。

Around 60% of the people infected with Covid-19 experienced a dry, peristent cough, likely from irritated lung tissue, according to studies from China. As the disease worsens, the lungs begin to fill with fluid, which might change the nature of the cough.

根据中国的研究,在感染Covid-19的人群中,大约有60%的人群会出现持续性干咳,这种咳嗽很可能来自发炎的肺部组织。随着病情加重,肺部开始充满液体并可能会改变咳嗽的本质。

A report put out by the World Health Organization in February found over 33% of 55,924 people with laboratory-confirmed cases of Covid-19 coughed up sputum, a thick mucus sometimes called phlegm, from their lungs, which is also characteristic of the common cold or flu.

一篇由世界卫生组织在2月份所发表的报告发现,在55,924名经过实验室证实患有Covid-19的人群中,有超过33%的人群会从肺里咳痰,痰是一种粘稠的、被称为粘液质的液体,这也是普通感冒或流行性感冒的特点。

Chills and body aches: 

发冷和身体疼痛:

Not everyone will have such a severe reaction, experts say. Some may have no chills or body aches at all. Others may experience milder flu-like chills, fatigue and achy joints and muscles.

并非所有人都会有严重的反应,专家表示。有些人可能完全没有出现发冷或身体疼痛的情况。其他人也许会出现轻微的类似于流感的发冷,疲惫以及关节和肌肉疼痛。

Of course that makes it difficult to know if you have the flu or have been exposed to the novel coronavirus. One possible sign that you might have Covid-19 is if your symptoms don't improve after a week or so but actually worsen.

当然,这会让人很难分辨自己到底是患上了流行性感冒还是新型冠状病毒。可能患上Covid-19的一个可能的现象就是症状在一周左右没有改善,而是加重了。

Overwhelming exhaustion: For some people, extreme fatigue can be an early sign of the novel coronavirus. The WHO report found nearly 40% of the nearly 6,000 people with laboratory-confirmed cases experienced fatigue.

极度疲惫:对于有些人而言,极度疲惫可能是新冠肺炎的早期症状。WHO的报告发现,在6000名经过实验室证实患有新冠肺炎的人群中,有近40%的患者有疲惫感。

Diarrhea and nausea: At first science didn't think gastric issues that often come with the flu applied to Covid-19. After all, this is a respiratory disease. But as more research rolled in and the virus was found in stool samples, that opinion quickly changed.

腹泻和恶心:起初,科学家们并不认为往往伴随流感的胃炎问题会出现在Covid-19上。毕竟,这是一种呼吸性疾病。但是,随着更多的研究推进,在粪便样本中也发现了病毒,因此上述观点被迅速调整。

"In a study out of China where they looked at some of the earliest patients, some 200 patients, they found that digestive or stomach GI (gastrointestinal) symptoms were actually there in about half the patients," Gupta said on CNN's "New Day" news program.

“在一项由中国展开的研究中,研究对象是大约200名Covid-19患者,他们都来自于最早患上Covid-19的一批患者。在研究中,他们发现,大约有一半的患者存在消化或胃部(肠胃)症状:,Gupta在CNN的 “New Day”新闻节目中表示。

Researchers have now found that SARS-CoV-2 can infect cells in the intestine and multiply there. That's likely because, like the lungs, the intestinal lining is loaded with ACE2 receptors, the sweet spot where the spokes of the SARS-CoV-2 virus attach and enter the body's cells.

现在,研究人员已经发现,SARS-CoV-2可以感染肠道内的细胞并在那里繁殖。这可能因为,就像在肺部一样,肠道内膜中装满了ACE2接收器,这成为了SARS-CoV-2病毒粘附并进入身体细胞的最佳位置点。

Sore throat, headache and nasal congestion: The early WHO report also found nearly 14% of the almost 6,000 cases of Covid-19 in China had symptoms of headache and sore throat, while almost 5% had nasal congestion.

嗓子痛、头痛和鼻塞:WHO早期的一篇报告还发现,在中国将近6000名Covid-19患者中,有几乎14%的患者有头痛、嗓子痛的症状,其中几乎有5%的患者有鼻塞的症状。

While cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing are key red flags of Covid-19, the council recommended headache and sore throat fall into a second tier of symptoms that may trigger doctors to consider testing for Covid-19.

尽管咳嗽、呼吸短促或呼吸困难被认为是Covid-19的典型标志,但是委员会建议将头痛和嗓子痛列入二级症状。二级症状可能会使医生考虑对患者进行Covid-19检测。

That tier kicks in when patients present with two of the following clinical signs: Chills or shivers, fever, muscle pain, headache, sore throat or new loss of taste and smell. If there is no other more appropriate diagnosis, the guidelines say doctors should report those patients as potentially infected with Covid-19.

当患者出现以下临床症状中的两项症状时:寒冷或寒颤、发烧、肌肉疼痛、头痛、嗓子痛或味觉和嗅觉失灵时,则进入二级症状。如果没有其他更加合适的诊断结果,则指南建议医生将这些患者作为潜在的Covid-19感染者进行汇报。



来源:CNN     编辑:质控部